Japanese Terms

Aikido = the way of Harmony of the Spirit AIKIDO

Ai =  Harmony      Ki = Spirit         Do = Way

The pronunciation of Japanese words tends to be somewhat subject to interpretation. Do not be confused by minor differences. Japanese speakers are.

A little effort in learning this vocabulary can add much to one’s ability to learn and understand Aikido.  Japanese terminology is always used in teaching Aikido for two reasons;  First, it helps to preserve the traditional heritage of Japanese martial arts; and second, it provides/establishes a common language understandable to all Aikidoka around the world, regardless of their primary language or culture.

The consonants of Japanese are usually pronounced like those in the English language. Vowels are pronounced as follows:

A “ah” as the a in father

E “eh”as the e in met

I “ee” as the i in marine …(Irimi – ee/ree/mee)

O “oh”as the o in oboe

U “oo”as the u in rule … Uke (oo/keh)

Words related to Aikido and Aikido practice in most dojos.

Ai …  Harmony, coming together, unification

Atemi Waza…     Techniques of striking. Ai hanmi / Mutual stance with partners facing each other with the same foot forward.

Aiki…Universal life energy, the creative principle of life. Literally, Blending of energy (ki).

Aikido…The way of blending with universal energy; the art founded by Morihei Ueshiba.

Ai-uchi…Simultaneous striking, mutual kill.

Ame–no–ukihashi…“Floating bridge of heaven, symbolizing the connection between earthy and heavenly realms of existence.

Amaterasu omikami…The goddess of the sun.

Arigato gozaimashita…Thank you.

Atemi…Strikes, a blow directed toward an anatomical weak point, used defensively in Aikido.

Ato geiko…Literally, “After-training training”, where higher belts throw lower belts to give more ukemi practice after regular class.

Bo…  Long staff.

Bokken…    Wooden sword.

Bujutsu…    Fighting Techniques.

Bokken: Wooden practice sword.

Bu…  Often translated as “martial”, this character has deep meaning in Aikido. It can mean “harmony,” “mutual understanding,” and “peace” as well as “martial”. The character is made up of two parts, one for “stop,” and one for “thrusting spear.”)

Budo… Literally to stop the thrusting spear. “A mind to serve for the peace of all humanity is needed in Aikido, not the mind of one who wished to be strong and only practices to defeat an opponent. There are neither opponents nor enemies for true Budo. Therefore to compete in techniques, winning or losing, is not true Budo. True Budo knows no defeat. Never defeated means never fighting.”

Bushin…     Highest level of spiritual communion

Bushido…   The way of chivalry.

Bushido…   Warrior’s code; The way of the warrior.

Chinkon kishin…“Calm the spirit and return to the source” a mediation technique rooted in Shinto spiritual practice.

Dan…Black belt rank in Aikido.

Deai… The moment of truth. The moment of the meeting of two forces. (The proper moment)

Deshi… Full time dedicated student/A way of life direction; a path of physical and spiritual refinement.

Dojo  …Training hall. The place where the way is revealed. A place for the strengthening and refinement of spirit, mind and body.

Dori/tori…Grab.

Funakogi undo-…Rowing movement exercise for body awareness and unification.

Furi–tama  … “Shaking down the spirit”, cleanse and polish the soul itself.

Gi…   Training uniform. Also called “keiko-gi”.

Gyaku hanmi…   Reverse stance in which partners have the opposite foot forward.

Hakama… Wide skirted pants worn over the gi. You will be expected to wear hakama (dark blue or black) after receiving the 6th kyu grade.

(At Shindai Dojo the Hakama is an initial public indication of commitment. We recommend our students wear the hakama as soon as they can.)

Hanmi…  The relaxed triangular stance of Aikido. It is stable yet flexible enough to move quickly in any direction. All technique begins, moves through and ends in hanmi.

Hanmi Handachi…  Techniques practiced with nage sitting and uke standing.

Hara…  The lower abdomen. The center of life energy, physical and spiritual. All movement must originate from this point.

Henko Waza…  Changing technique. One technique evolves into another based on the continuing flow of energy from Uke.

Irimi…  Entering, moving into and through the line of attack with no thought of escape.

Jo…  Short staff.

Jo dori…  Techniques of staff taking.

Jiyu Waza…  Free technique. In testing usually against one opponent

Kaeshiwaza…Reversal techniques

Kaiten…“Open and turn,” one of the fundamental pillars of Aikido practice.

Kamae…  A posture or stance of readiness. In each kamae there are different positions for the hands or weapon. Jodan – high position; Chudan – middle position; Gedan – lower position.

Kami…Fire and water; deity; natural gods and goddesses; spirit of the Universe;Spirits; the divine.

Kannagara no michi…  The path that flows from the gods and binds the universe together.

Kata dori… Shoulder grab.

Kata  …“Fixed form”; a set of prearranged series of movements.

Katate…One hand (left or right).

Katate dori…  Wrist grab.

Katate dori ryote mochi…  Grabbing your partner’s wrist with both hands.

Katsuhayabi…“Victory right here, right now”; “speed which transcends time and space”; spiritual tenet of Aikido.

Katsu jin ken The saving of your enemy’s life. c.f. Satsu jin ken.

Keiko… Study or practice. The deeper meaning is to return to the origin. Through the study of the past and appreciation for its experience we can understand the present and refine our spirit.

Ki…   Spirit; vital force or energy; universal energy. Pronounced “chi” in Chinese.

Kiai…  The release of spiritual and physical power in the form of a piercing scream originating in the hara.

Kibaki… This is a term that loosely translates to the expansive Ki or expanding Ki. According to Saotome Sensei, this expansion of Ki creates connection and is the essence of Irimi.

Kihon…Basic form of a technique.

Kohai…  Junior student. Those who begin their study of Aikido after you. You owe them your help and support.

Kokyu…  The power of breath, renewal of life force.

Kosa dori…  Cross hand grab.

Kotodama…  The spiritual function of sound. Every one syllable sound has its own spiritual vibration.

Kubi shime…  A choke hold.

Kumi Jo…  Paired jo practice.

Kumano…  Ancient district in Wakamaya Prefecture; O Sensei’s birthplace.

Kumi Tachi…  Paired sword practice.

Kyu… White belt grade.

Maai… The distance of time and space between two forces. The movement of the mind, the stream of spirit and their direction, as well as physical distance, determines the balanced and proper use of space.

Mae…In front. Opposite of Ushiro.

Masakatsu Agatsu…“True victory is self victory”, one of the principal tenets of Aikido.

Men–uchi…Strike to the head.

Michi…Way.

Misogi… Purification of mind, body, and spirit. Sweating is misogi; cleaning is misogi; fasting is misogi; keiko is misogi.

Mokuso…    Meditation and contemplation period/ with eyes almost closed.

Mu…Void, nothingness.

Munetsuki…  A straight punch to the chest or solar plexus.

Mushin…  No mind, a mind without ego. A mind like a mirror which reflects and does not judge.

Musubi…  Opposites are but different images of the same reality. Musubi is the process of their unification. It is the movement of the spiral.

Nage… A throw (kokyu Nage/ breath throw). One who throws.

Omote… To the front.

(It can also denote “inside” as opposed to “outside” (Ura), as it relates to irimi and intent.)

Onegai Shimasu…“Please [train with me].” Japanese phrase used between students to initiate training.

O Sensei… Great teacher – the title used for the Founder of Aikido.

Randori… Free technique against multiple attack.

Rei… To bow. (It also denotes an encompassing and focused attitude of respect. A self-awareness of responsibility and consideration is imperative, as is an empathetic nature.)

Reigi… Rei can also be translated as holy spirit; gi as manifestation. When used together the words mean proper etiquette, respecting the creative force and spirit which is the same in all of us.

Ryote dori… Grabbing both wrists.

Ryokata dori… Grabbing both shoulders.

Samurai… Originally comes from the verb meaning to serve. One who has the duty and responsibility to protect society.

Satsu jin ken…    The destruction of killing of one’s enemy. c.f. Katsu jin ken

Sempai… Senior student: Those who began their study of Aikido before you. You owe them your respect for their experience.

Seiza… Formal sitting position.

Sensei… Teacher, one who gives guidance along the way. Literally – born before.

Senshin… A purified heart and spirit; enlightened attitude.

Shiho…Four directions.

Shin ken…Live blade. Unified attention.

Shin kokyu…Divine or spirit breath. lit. Deep breathing exercise.

Shinto…Way of the Gods; indigenous animistic religion of Japan.

Shikko… Knee walking.

Shomen… The upper seat, the shrine which houses the picture of the Founder and the spirit of Aikido.

Shomenuchi… Strike or cut to the top of the head.

Shomentsuki… Thrust between the eyes.

Shinai…  Split bamboo practice sword.

Shugyo…  The daily work to refine and purify the quality of life.

Soto…Outside, or too the side. Opposite of uchi.

Suburi… Practice with sword or bokken in which the same cut is repeated again and again. An excellent purification/meditation exercise.

Suki…Opening gap; vulnerability; moment of inattention.

Suburi…Repetitions of a motion done for the purpose of perfecting performance.

Suwariwaza… Techniques which begin with both opponents in seiza and are executed from the knees.

Tachi… Japanese long sword.

Tachi dori… Techniques of sword taking..

Tachi waza…Techniques from standing. c.f. Suwari waza

Tai no henko…The basic blending practice. Tenkan exercise.

Taijutsu… Empty handed techniques.

Takemusu Aiki… Enlightened Aikido. “Aiki has a form and does not have a form. Aiki is a life which has a form and still flows with change; it expresses itself by changing itself. A form without a form is a word in a poem which expresses the universe limitlessly.”

Takemusu Aiki means “spontaneous creation of divine techniques”.
A more down-to-earth translation is “spontaneously aikido occuring naturally, without thought or force because it is inherently part of the universe.

Tanden… The hara.

Tanren… Training. Suburi is training; kumi tachi is study (keiko).

Tanto… Knife, generally with a specifically shaped blade.

Tanto dori… Techniques of knife taking.

Te…  Hand.

Tegatana…Hand blade; Sword edge of the hand. Also pronounced “shuto.”

Ten–chi…   Heaven and earth; the complete universe

Tenkan… Turning to dissipate force.

Tsuki…Thrust; punch to a body part.

Uchi…         Strike.

     Uchi  …Inside. Opposite of soto.

Ueshiba Morihei…(O Sensei) The founder of Aikido.

Uke… One who receives. The person being thrown.

Ukemi… Techniques of falling. The art of protecting oneself from injury. The first and most important step to developing strong Aikido technique is developing good ukemi.

Ura… To the rear.

(Can also denote the opposite of Omote)

Ushiro…From behind; back; rear. Opposite of mae.

Waza…Techniques.

Yudansha…One who has achieved the rank of black belt in an art.

Zanshin…Continuity; complete awareness of one’s surroundings; unbroken concentration.

Concepts

masakatsu – victory of correctness, precision, righteousness (first principle of Aikido)

agatsu – victory over self (second principle of Aikido)

katsuhayahi – victory over light, over speed (third principle of Aikido) shihan – master instructor sensei – title of respect when referring to an instructor; never used for oneself

 

Bu = Relating to a warrior, e.g. budo = way of the warrior.

Do = the way, or a way of viewing the subject.  In some cases it elevates the study to an art form. Eg.  Jujitsu, becomes Judo.  Kenjistu, becomes Kendo.

Ka = (suffix) Practitioner, e.g. aikidoka =  Aikido practitioner

Budoka =  One who studies the way of the Warrior, with a balanced emphasis on the ethics, integrity, responsibility… etc., of the warrior spirit.

Bushi: Warrior

Sensei = Teacher, i.e. your Aikido instructor

Shihan= A leader who has transcended the presentation of the subject matter to become its embodiment and example.  An individual recognized as a living example of the tenants and principles of the art form who inspires others to follow their lead.  Most often these individuals have been identified as those who take\hold the knowledge of the past, and with consideration and integrity, expand the  art form into a future unseen by their predecessors. Also, in a sense, one who inspires disciples by their life, examples and actions. Mitsugi Saotome Shihan.                                                                                         

O = (prefix) Honorable, e.g. O-Sensei =  Honorable Teacher, used to refer to the founder of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba.

Kai = School, e.g. aikikai =  Aikido school

Dojo = Practice hall, i.e. the place where you practice Aikido

Seiza =  formal sitting position

Shikko =  Moving on the knees

Dan = Black belt rank

Kyu = rank below black belt

COURTESIES

Onegashimas = Let’s practice.  It is a mutual recognition of the dynamics of the practice at that moment in time.  It is a greeting of introduction and mutual consideration.

Domo Arigato =  Thank you

Domo Arigato Gozaimashita =  Thank you once again for your consideration. Often used at the end of class.

COUNTING

Simple Counting (as in counting repetitions of warm-up exercises)

Ichi = One                   Roku = Six

Ni = Two                     Shichi = Seven

San = Three                Hachi = Eight

Shi = Four                   Ku = Nine

Go = Five                    Ju = Ten

RANKS

Black Belt (DAN) =Yudansha                       Below black Belt (KYU)=Mudansha

Shodan               = First degree =           Ikkyu

Nidan                 = Second degree =       Nikyu

Sandan               = Third degree =          Sankyu

Yodan                = Fourth degree =        Yonkyu

Godan                = Fifth degree =          Gokyu

Rokudan            = Sixth degree =          Rikkyu

Note:  Numbering of ranks is done in different directions for the KYU and DAN ranks.  A student progresses upward from Rokkyu to Ikkyu and then having achieved black belt rank progresses form Shodan upward to higher numbered ranks.

STANCE AND MOVEMENT

Hanmi = Stance

Migi = Right, e.g. migi hanmi = right stance

Hidari = Left, e.g. hidari hanmi =  left stance

Irimi = Entering movement, e.g. irimi nage = entering throw

Tenkan = Turning movement, e.g. tenkan = first control technique with turning movement

Ma-ai = Distance between combatants

BLOWS

Tsuki = Spearlike thrust or percussive blow (punch)

Uchi = Sword like cutting strike

Shomen = Head level cutting strike from the front ending in an out thrusting motion. e.g. shomen uchi =  front strike

Yokomen = Side (of the head or neck).. starting with the same motion as Shomen uchi, the cut turns as the target moves to strike the side of the temple or neck                  region. e.g. yokomen uchi = side strike

Mune = Chest/solar plexus, e.g. mune tsuki =  chest area thrust or strike.

Atemi = Striking principles.  Used to break the opponent’s concentration and balance, or otherwise change the nature of the attack and intended outcome.

Waza = Techniques, e.g. atemi waza = striking techniques

GRASPING ATTACKS

Hiji = Elbow

Kata = Shoulder

Katate =  One hand

Ryote = Two hands

Tori = Hold or grab, e.g. katate tori = hold on one hand; kata tori =  shoulder grab

Mochi = grip, e.g. katate tori ryote mochi =  two hand grip on one hand

Ushiro  = Rear, e.g. ushiro hiji tori = elbow hold from behind

Positions

Omote  = In front

Ura = In back

Soto= Side

THROWS AND LOCKS

Nage = A throw or one who performs the throw by directing the energy.

Uke = One who most often provides the attack energy and who receives the throw.

Ukemi = A three part description of Uke’s movement 1. A solid attack with intent and control. 2. Continuation of movement and intent as the interaction progresses. 3. A resolution by Uke to protect him/her from harm … generally seen as a series of controlled rolls, flips or back falls.  In the beginning the word Ukemi is most often used to describe the series of falls and rolls.

Ten Chi = Heaven-earth, e.g. tenchi nage = heaven and earth throw

Shi ho = Four directions, e.g. shiho nage = four directions throw

Irimi = Entering, e.g. irimi nage = entering throw

Kokyu = Breath, e.g. kokyu nage = breath throw

Kaiten = Rotary, e.g. kaiten nage = rotary throw

Koshi = Hip, e.g. koshi nage = hip throw

Otoshi = Drop, e.g. aiki otoshi = aiki-style drop

Kote = Wrist

Gaeshi = Turn outward, e.g. kote gaeshi = wrist turn out

Mawashi = Turn inward, e.g. kote mawashi = wrist turn in (usually referred as nikyo)

Jime = locking a joint against the natural direction of movement, e.g. hiji jime = elbow lock

CONTROL TECHNIQUES

These techniques are numbered from one up.  Compare this with the section on counting.

Ikkyo = First Principle

Nikyo = Second  Principle

Sankyo = Third  Principle

Yonkyo = Fourth Principle

Osae = Control technique ikkyo nikyo, sankyo and yonkyo are all “osae” and formal terminology may include this term,

e.g. ikkyo osae.

WEAPONS AND Terms

Jo = Wooden staff

Bo = Long wooden staff

Ken = Sword

Bokken = Wooden sword (bo-ken)

Shinai = Bamboo sword for full contact fencing

Tachi = Short sword

Tanto = Knife

Jutsu = System of techniques, e.g. bujutsu = martial arts; aikijutsu = the forerunner of Aikido

Tai = Body, e.g. tai jutsu = body (unarmed) techniques

Dori = Weapon taking techniques, e.g. tanto dori = knife taking techniques; tachi dori = sword taking techniques

Note that while Aikido is based in large part by the movements and perspectives of sword work, the sword is a whole separate line of study.  Sword has a distinct vocabulary and terminology for its study.

AIKIDO PRACTICE

Keiko: Aikido practice.

Suwari = Performed from the kneeling position, e.g. suwari waza = techniques performed while kneeling

Tachi = Performed from the standing position

Hanmi-handachi = Performed with one partner standing and one kneeling

Kata = Fixed form practice or series of movements that can be studied in a safe and controlled fashion, e.g. jokata = fixed form jo practice

Jiyu waza = Free form technique

VOCABULARY

Aikido is more than the study of technique.  First it is the investigation of essential principles in part articulated through the study of technique.  The physical part is one part of three;  physical, intellectual and spirit.  In terms of intellectual our study requires that we do research on history, culture and THE LANGUAGE OF OUR ART.  You should look for additional sources of vocabulary.  As we are an ASU dojo, the first source is the ASU handbook and the books of our Shihan, Mitsugi Saotome.

Kusushi = Unbalancing Uke

Awase= Blending or harmony with Uke’s movement.

Kime= Stance or position in relation to Uke.

Hanmi= Stance.left foot forward or right foot forward. Ie. Ai Hanmi

Shisei= Posture in Nage static or in motion

Shizentai= Natural balanced posture/stance

Zanshin= Connection of Nage to Uke in terms of position, intent, spirit.

Maai= Distance of engagement

Sempai = senior student.  Bears of responsibility of consideration nurturing Cohai

Cohai = junior student

Gedan = Low sword/hand position

Chudan = Mid sword/hand position

Jodan = High sword/hand position

Kokoro = has no literal translation in our language.  It is the balanced combinations of Mind/Spirit/Heart .  It is intellect, emotion, sensitivity, expression, Intergrity and love in contact with the universe outside the man.  It is conscious humane interaction with life.

Thanks to Geoff Goodman

 

Definition / Shindai:

To conduct oneself in awareness of the divine nature of those around us. To walk in the appreciation of the precious aspects of all life, with consideration for all. Taken from the Kojiki the word Shindai derives itself  from a time when men and gods walked the earth together. Indistinguishable from one another, one therefore conducted oneself as if everyone was a god. Consideration, empathy, respect, honor, a nurturing nature, ethics, an attitude of chivalry, a strong spirit, all of these things were the nature and second nature of all. This is Shindai.

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